Is the Westminster Confession’s Doctrine of the Sabbath a Judaizing Doctrine?

The Confessional Presbyterian 12

The Confessional Presbyterian 12

In a day when it seems Presbyterians are drifting further and further away from the doctrines of the Westminster Confession of Faith and Catechisms, The Confessional Presbyterian journal was founded in 2005 to provide a forum for ecumenical discussion amongst conservative Presbyterians of different denominations, wishing to defend closer adherence to these old standards of biblical Christianity. The CPJ is an annual 2 column large format publication containing a range of theological, practical and historical material, which over the last twelve issues has amounted to 3,352 pages or 3,217,348 words (see table of contents here). The 2016 twelfth issue was the first fully thematic issue (contents listed below), and the topic is a doctrine in much decay in our day, The Lord’s Day or Christian Sabbath. One of the important pieces run in v12 is Geoff Willour’s “Is the Westminster Confession’s Doctrine of the Sabbath a Judaizing Doctrine? A Critique of the First Minority Report of the OPC’s Committee on Sabbath Matters. Below is a summary.

Mr. Willour introduces his subject, noting the decay of observance of the Christian Sabbath in our day and that most of the professing church seems to view the commandment as merely ceremonial (pp. 195–196). After giving the historical background that gave rise to the Majority and Minority Reports on the Sabbath in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC) in 1973, pastor Willour summarizes the contents of the second minority report:

The position of the author of the Minority Report is that the Sabbath was exclusively a ceremonial law, binding only upon God’s people living under the old covenant administration. As such, it was a “shadow” that pointed forward to, and was fulfilled in Christ and the salvation-rest He graciously provides to His believing people. Consequently, the fourth commandment is no longer binding upon believers today, who are living under the new covenant administration of fulfillment in Christ and not the old covenant administration of types and shadows. Instead of observing the Sabbath of the fourth commandment, believers today observe the Lord’s Day—Sunday, the day of the Lord’s resurrection—which the author of the Minority Report regards as the new covenant holy day, distinct and separate from the Sabbath, and thus not at all to be identified as the “Christian Sabbath,” as the Westminster Standards mistakenly teach (WCF 21.7; WLC 116 & 117; WSC 59). To require believers today to observe Sunday as if it were the “Christian Sabbath,” and as if such observance were an act of obedience to the fourth commandment, involves no less an act of Judaizing the gospel as the requiring of circumcision on the part of Gentile believers. Indeed, it is even a denial of Christ!

In the body of his argument, the author of this Report relies almost exclusively on the New Testament, especially Colossians 2:16–17 and related texts. In fact, he begins the Scriptural argumentation for his position with these words: “Colossians 2:16, 17 is the key passage for the understanding of the place of the Fourth Commandment in the Christian life” (Minutes, 40th G.A., 106; emphasis added). Conspicuously absent in his biblical argumentation for his position is any interaction with the exegesis of such key passages as offered by the authors of the Majority Report.

After giving examples of the author’s argumentation, the reverend Willour goes on to give a critique of the Minority Report under four points. 1. The Minority Report neglects to interact with either the Majority Report or the historic Westminster-confessing tradition of interpretation with respect to its exegesis of Colossians 2:16, 17 and other allegedly anti-sabbatarian Scriptural texts (197-200). 2. The position of the Minority Report is flawed in that it grounds the Sabbath ordinance in the Mosaic, old-covenant administration, rather than in creation (201). 3. The Minority Report does not give due weight to the inclusion of the Sabbath commandment within the Decalogue, the other commandments of which are clearly moral in nature (201-202). 4. The position taken and assertions employed in the Minority Report, to the effect that the observing of Sunday as the Christian Sabbath involves a judaizing of the gospel and a denying of Christ, is potentially divisive (202). The author then closes with a very brief positive note, but we shall close this summary by citing the brief explanation of the fourth point.

I would not be surprised to read such accusations against the Westminster doctrine of the Sabbath from confessional Lutherans, or dispensationalists, or other anti-sabbatarian brethren whose theological and confessional traditions stand opposed to our Sabbath doctrine. But to read a report written by a church officer in the OPC who has affirmed ordination vows which include the promise to receive and adopt the Scriptural system of doctrine taught in the Westminster Standards is befuddling to me. Indeed, this is a system whose Sabbath doctrine is inextricably intertwined with other central doctrines of our confessional system, such as its doctrine of the law of God. One wonders how ordained officers who embrace the position of the Minority Report could work in clear conscience within the context of a denomination and in cooperation with fellow church officers whose professed doctrine of the Sabbath would, by logical implication, make them in effect Judaizers and Christ-deniers. At the very least it would seem that a consistent adherence to the position of the Minority Report would make it difficult to cultivate a spirit of collegiality, confidence in, and mutual submission to the brethren, for how could one submit to and have confidence in fellow church officers whom one believes to be Judaizers and Christ-deniers? At its worst, the consistent embracing of the position of the Minority Report by those within the Westminster-confessing churches may have the potential effect of promoting schism. Arguably, embracing the position expressed in the Minority Report is a rejection of an important aspect of the Scriptural system of doctrine taught in the Westminster Standards, and thus poses a potential threat to the unity, purity, and peace of Westminster-confessing churches such as the OPC.

The 2016 12th issue of The Confessional Presbyterian journal is currently on sale for $20 postpaid. Sets of v2-12 currently are on sale for $140 postpaid (the 2005 v1 is out of print). The contents of volume 12 are as follows:

  1. Editorial


  1. Pastoral Letters on the Observance of the Sabbath. By Thomas E. Peck, T. V. Moore and Benjamin Morgan Palmer
  2. Southern Presbyterian Sabbatarianism. By James Henley Thornwell, et al.
  3. Dropping the Subject, Again? The Decline of Sabbatarianism in the Old Southern Presbyterian Church and in the Presbyterian Church in America. By Chris Coldwell
  4. The Doctrine of the Sabbath with a Particular look at its Application in the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. By Benjamin P. Glaser
  5. Politics, International Relations, and the Sabbath: The 1915 International Lord’s Day Congress. By Frank J. Smith
  6. Leviticus 23 and the Christian Sabbath. By Benjamin Shaw
  7. What Should a Typical Sabbath Look Like and Why? By Ryan M. McGraw
  8. The Christian Sabbath: Destiny not Drudgery. By Roy Mohon
  9. John Calvin, the Nascent Sabbatarian: A Reconsideration of Calvin’s View of Two Key Sabbath-Issues. By Stewart E. Lauer
  10. The Sabbath Day and Recreations on the Sabbath: An Examination of the Sabbath and the Biblical Basis for the “No Recreation” Clause in Westminster Confession of Faith 21.8 and Westminster Larger Catechism 117. By Lane Keister
  11. Regulae de Observatione Sabbathi: The Synod of Dort’s (1618–19) Deliverance on the Sabbath. By Daniel R. Hyde
  12. Our Reasonable Service: Sabbath Doctrine of the Nadere Reformatie. By Justin B. Stodghill
  13. Is the Westminster Confession’s Doctrine of the Sabbath a Judaizing Doctrine? By Geoffrey L. Willour
  14. The Fourth Commandment: Annulled or Sustained? By Carl E. Erickson

Table of Contents Continued

225 Reviews & Responses: Terry L. Johnson, Worshipping with Calvin: Recovering the Historic Ministry and Worship of Reformed Protestantism and Serving with Calvin: Leading and Planning Services of Worship in the Reformed Church (Barry Waugh) 225 ■ Nicholas P. Lunn, The Original Ending of Mark: A New Case for the Authenticity of Mark 16:9–20 (Benjamin Shaw) 226 ■ John C. Clark and Marcus Peter Johnson, The Incarnation of God: The Mystery of the Gospel as the Foundation of Evangelical Theology (Scott Cook) 229 ■ R. Baines, et al, Confessing the Impassible God: The Biblical, Classical & Confessional Doctrine of Divine Impassibility (Peter Sanlon) 234 ■ Benjamin Morgan Palmer, The Broken Home; or Lessons in Sorrows (C. N. Willborn) 235 ■ Sean Michael Lucas, For a Continuing Church: The Roots of the Presbyterian Church (Lane Keister) 236■

239 Psallo: Psalm 5:1–12

242 In Translatiōne: John Brown of Wamphray: Recreations and the Sabbath

262 Antiquary: A Transcription of James Durham’s Sermon on Ephesians 4:11-12, taught before the Synod of Glasgow, October 5, 1652.

284 Bibliography

295 The Editors

In Brief: The Lord’s Day is no Human Constitution (134) ■ In Brief: John Owen on Isaiah 58:13 (141) ■ In Brief: Zanchius on “Remember the Sabbath day” (148) ■ In Brief: We must rest also from speaking & hearing of worldly matters (172) ■ In Brief: The Sabbath Day a Creation Ordinance (183) ■ In Brief: Junius on the Morality of a Sabbath day (203)■

Chris Coldwell is general editor and publisher of The Confessional Presbyterian. The editing board consists of The Revs. C. N. Willborn, Ph.D., James J. Cassidy, Ph.D., Jeffrey C. Waddington, Ph.D. (Articles), and Glen J. Clary, Ph.D. (Reviews). Since 1988 through Naphtali Press, Mr. Coldwell has published classic works from seventeenth century Presbyterian authors. The most recent publication is the first critical edition of Nicholas Bownd’s True Doctrine of the Sabbath (1606) co-published with Reformation Heritage Books in 2015 (592pp, hardback, dj). This seminal work set the general Puritan position and argument later encapsulated in the Westminster Standards.

The Confessional Presbyterian adds editors

The eighth volume of The Confessional Presbyterian journal is well under way. We have tried to have mini themes in the past, but this year the issue will more largely follow a Princeton theme as this year marks the 200th anniversary of that seminary’s founding. I’m also pleased to announce that we have expanded the editorial staff by three. Nick Batzig and Jeff Waddington are joining Jim Cassidy and Nick Willborn in editing the articles section.

Nick Batzig is the organizing pastor of New Covenant Presbyterian Church (PCA), in Richmond Hill, Ga., a suburb of Savannah, Ga. Nick attended Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and is enrolled in the Th.M. program at Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary. Nick is pursuing a Th.M. in the subject of “The Third Use of the Law in the Reformed Confessions and Catechisms.” Prior to receiving the call to plant a church in Richmond Hill, Nick served as an intern at Tenth Presbyterian Church, in Philadelphia, and interim pastor of Christ the King PCA in Conshohocken, PA. He is married to his beautiful wife, Anna, and has three amazing sons, Micah, Elijah and Judah. Besides being a contributor to Feeding on Christ, Nick is also a regular panelist on Christ the Center and writes for several other blogs on the Reformed Forum. Nick has been a regular contributor to Tabletalk Magazine. Nick also has articles and reviews in The Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology, Modern Reformation, and Reformation21. Nick’s 2009 (University of Glasgow/Yale University) lecture on “Edwards, Maclaurin and the Transatlantic Concert” was published in the 2011 Dunedin Press Jonathan Edwards and Scotland.

Jeff Waddington is an ordained minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and currently serves as teacher of the congregation at Calvary Church of Amwell in Ringoes, NJ. Jeff received his MDiv degree from Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia in 2000 and is a PhD candidate in historical and theological studies (apologetics) and is writing a dissertation on Jonathan Edwards’ theological anthropology and apologetic practice. Jeff is married to his lovely wife Ruth (since 14 July 1990) and has two daughters, Suzannah (a sophomore at Houghton College) and Carolynne (a high school freshman). Jeff serves as the secretary of the Reformed Forum and is a panelist on Christ the Center and a contributor to the Feeding on Christ website. Jeff has been a published writer since 1986, contributing articles and book reviews to such publications as the Westminster Theological Journal, Confessional Presbyterian, Modern Reformation, Themelios, and Reformation21. Jeff assisted William Edgar and K. Scott Oliphint with the editing of the two volume set Christian Apologetics: Past and Present. He has also contributed a chapter to the book Reforming or Conforming? Post-Conservative Evangelicals and the Emerging Church and contributed to and co-edited with Lane G. Tipton Resurrection and Eschatology: Theology in Service of the Church: Essays in Honor of Richard B. Gaffin, and has a chapter in a forthcoming festschrift for David Wells.

In addition, joining Lane Keister editing reviews (for 2013 D.V.), will be the Rev. Gabriel Fluhrer, who is the organizing pastor of Shiloh Presbyterian Church, a mission work of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, in Raleigh, NC.

We continue to offer a full set of the last seven years of issues at a substantial discount. See the here.

Full sets of The Confessional Presbyterian journal (2005- ) Issue 1 out of print

The inaugural 2005 issue of The Confessional Presbyterian journal is out of print. Complete sets are no longer available to order, but sets of volume 2 (2006) forward are available.

The editors and publisher would like to thank all who continue to have an interest and support for The Confessional Presbyterian. We now have seven issues and seven years behind us and are working on our eighth. Currently full sets of the journal (7 issues 2005-2011) can be obtained at a great sale price of $75 US ($135 International). We no longer list volume 1 for sale individually, and have reserved all remaining copies of that 2005 inaugural issue for set sales. When those are gone, complete sets will no longer be available. See here to order. See the author index for complete listing of material covered in these seven issues.

The Confessional Presbyterian 7 for 2011

The Confessional Presbyterian Journal volume 7 (2011)It is hard to believe this is the seventh year for The Confessional Presbyterian journal; and the amount of material we have been pleased to present currently extends to six issues (2005–2010) amounting to about 1,700 double column pages. We have presented a wide range of material including original research in different topics, including on the Westminster Assembly and Standards.

The 2011 issue is available in our online store. The contents are as follows:

3.    Holy Communion in the Theology of John Knox
By Glen J. Clary
25.    John Knox and the Reformation by the Rev. Dr. James Begg
By Iain Wright
41.    The Early Reformation in Scotland
By W. Duncan Rankin
47.    Reformed Presbyterian Criticism of the 1859 Ulster Revival’s Impact on Worship and Church Order
By Daniel Ritchie
65.    1812–1822: The Development of Princeton’s Polemic
By Allen Stanton
77.    The Calvinistic Soteriology of Jonathan Dickinson
By Gary Steward
87.    An Introduction to T. V. Moore through his Essay on Juvenile Delinquency
By Barry Waugh
99.    The Basis and Practice of Christian Mission to Jews 1520–1860
By Rowland S. Ward
111.    The Benediction in Corporate Worship
By Ryan M. McGraw
123.    The Abrahamic Covenant and the Kingdom of God
By Jeong Koo Jeon
139.    On the Shoulders of Giants: Van Til’s Appropriation of Warfield
and Kuyper
By Jeffrey C. Waddington
147.    The Modal Transcendental Argument for God’s Existence
By David Reiter
153.    The Lord and His Messengers: Toward a Trinitarian Interpretation of Malachi 3:1–4
By Camden M. Bucey

164    Reviews & Responses: Michael Horton, The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims on the Way (Wes Bredenhof) 164 ■ Kevin J. Vanhoozer, Remythologizing Theology: Divine Action, Passion, and Authorship (James E. Dolezal) 167 ■ Response: “On the Scope and Scopus of ‘Always Reforming,’ A Response to James Dolezal” (Kevin Vanhoozer) 172 ■ Surrejoinder to Kevin Vanhoozer (James E. Dolezal) 175 ■ Paul Helm, Eternal God: A Study of God Without Time, 2nd ed. (Patrick Arnold) 178 ■ Willem J. Van Asselt, et al., Scholastic Discourse: Johannes Maccovius (1588–1644) on Theological and Philosophical Distinctions and Rules (Wes White) 183 ■ T. V. Moore, The Last Days of Jesus (C. N. Willborn) 185 ■ Paul C. Gutjahr, Charles Hodge: Guardian of American Orthodoxy (James Cassidy) 187 ■ J. Knox Chamblin, Matthew: A Mentor Commentary (W. Gary Crampton) 190 ■ Eric L. Johnson, Foundations for Soul Care: A Christian Psychology Proposal (Daniel F. Patterson) 195 ■ J. V. Fesko, Last Things First: Unlocking Genesis 1–3 with the Christ of Eschatology (Ryan McGraw) 200 ■ W. Gary Crampton, From Paedobaptism to Credobaptism: A Critique of the Westminster Standards on the Subjects of Baptism (J. V. Fesko) 203 ■ Response (W. G. Crampton) 206 ■ Surrejoinder to Dr. Crampton’s Response (J. V. Fesko) 210 ■ Douglas Bond, The Mighty Weakness of John Knox and D. M. Lloyd-Jones and Iain Murray, John Knox and the Reformation (Lane Keister) 211 ■
213    Psallo: Psalm 116
216    In Translatiōne: The Preface to the Constance Hymnbook by Joannem Zwick
230    Antiquary: The James Durham MSS Part II
232    Bibliography
253    The Editors and Contributing Editors
.    In Brief: T. V. Moore’s Twenty Hints for a Happy Family (97) ■ In Brief: Robert Baillie on the Chiliasm of Archer, Burroughs and Goodwin (110) ■ In Brief: Thomas Goodwin on God’s Blessing His People (122)

Take advantage of subscribing or renewing as soon as possible for the low rate of $18.oo postage paid. Once the issue is published the rate will rise to the regular retail rate (USA) of $25.00, postage paid. Renew and subscribe online at

Chris Coldwell, General Editor & Publisher
James J. Cassidy and C. N. Willborn, Editors, Articles
Lane Keister, Editor, Reviews & Responses

Antiquary (2005-2010)

It is hard to believe this is the seventh year for The Confessional Presbyterian journal; and the amount of material we have been pleased to present currently extends to six issues (2005-2010) amounting to about 1,700 pages. The editors are at work on the 2011 issue; stay tuned to our news page for details. Meantime I thought I would review some of the material we have been able to present over the last six years, and here I would notice one of the ongoing departments of the journal.

Antiquary is one of the regular features of The Confessional Presbyterian. As the title implies it affords exploring the ‘antiquities’ (old books and MS, etc.) relating to Presbyterianism. Below is the listing of the entries for the past 6 issues (2005-2010). Each entry to date has had its unique difficulties and rewards in researching; but the most recent entry on Westminster Abbey Library had many challenges to overcome. The result I believe uncovers some new and interesting facets of one of those aspects Dr. S. W. Carruthers would call the “every day work” of the Westminster Assembly. One particular item that may afford future research was the uncovering and transcribing of a MS list of books taken from Archbishop Laud’s library for use by the Assembly in their debates. Full sets of the journal are still available (currently on sale at $75 a set postage paid, USA; $110 International). To purchase issues see the online store:

Antiquary: “The Traditional Form of The Westminster Standards.” The Confessional Presbyterian 1 (2005). This is a companion piece to the article in the same issue: “Examining the Work of S. W. Carruthers: Justifying a Critical Approach to the Text of the Westminster Standards & Correcting the 18th Century Lineage of the Traditional Scottish Text.”

Antiquary: “T. & J. Swords. Part One. Printers During the Federal Period to Doctors, Scientists, Friendly and Calliopean Clubers, and other New York Literati, as well as High Churchists, and the Occasional Presbyterian.” The Confessional Presbyterian 2 (2006).

Antiquary: “T. & J. Swords. Part Two. Two Large Presbyterian Works (Miller’s Brief Retrospect and the 1799 first edition of the ARP standards).” The Confessional Presbyterian 3 (2007).

Antiquary: “T. & J. Swords. Part Three: The ‘High Churchism’ Controversy.” The Confessional Presbyterian 4 (2008).

Antiquary: “The James Durham MSS Held by Glasgow University Library.” The Confessional Presbyterian 5 (2009).

Antiquary: “Westminster Abbey Library: And Other Theological Resources of the Assembly of Divines (1643–1652).” The Confessional Presbyterian 6 (2010).

The Confessional Presbyterian’s New Editors: C. N. Willborn and James J. Cassidy

News Update. We are pleased to announce that The Confessional Presbyterian has two new editors. The Rev. James J. Cassidy and  the Rev. Dr. C. N. Willborn have agreed to take on the task of overseeing the large Articles section of the journal. Both have been enthusiastic contributors since the journal’s inception, and join the Rev. Lane Keister who took up the editor duties of the Reviews section in 2009. We believe the assembling of this fine team of editors will ensure this publication continues offering quality material on issues of concern and interest from a confessional Presbyterian and Reformed point of view. Chris Coldwell continues in the capacity of general editor and publisher.

James J. Cassidy. Jim is a pastor of Calvary Church (OPC), Ringoes, N. J., and is currently in the Ph.D. program at Westminster Theological Seminary, focusing on the study of Systematic Theology. He is a contributor at the Reformed Forum. Jim provided the following articles for past issues of The Confessional Presbyterian: “Critical-Realism & the Relation of Redemptive Act to Revelatory Word” (2006); “Francis Turretin and Barthianism: The Covenant of Works in Historical Perspective” (2009).

C. N. “Nick” Willborn. Nick is Senior Pastor of Covenant Presbyterian Church (PCA), Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Adjunct Professor of Historical Theology, Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Dr. Willborn has written for many books and journals. His writings include: “Adoption: A Historical Perspective with Evangelical Implications,” in Sanctification: Growing in Grace (2002); “The Diaconate: God’s Office of Temporal Affairs,” in Confessing Our Hope (2004); “The ‘Ministerial and Declarative’ Powers of the Church and In Thesi Deliverances,” in The Confessional Presbyterian (2005); “Presbyterians in the South and the Slave: A Study in Benevolence,” in The Confessional Presbyterian (2007); “Gilbert Tennent” in Colonial Presbyterianism (2007); “Biblical Theology in Southern Presbyterianism” in The Hope Fulfilled (2008); “Eschatology and the Westminster Standards in The Confessional Presbyterian (2008); and “The Deacon: A Divine Right Office with Divine Uses,” in The Confessional Presbyterian (2009). Nick is currently writing a critical biography (the first) of the Southern Presbyterian theologian, John L. Girardeau.


We are still accepting article and review submissions for 2010. If you would like to make a submission for publication please review the submissions page.

2009 issue well received; Special offer to expire; 2010 submissions; Individual articles available for purchase

News Update. I would like to thank all the subscribers who have made these now five volumes of  The Confessional Presbyterian journal possible. The 2009 issue should be in the hands of all subscribers by this point, and I am very grateful for the positive reception it has received thus far, and look forward to putting together a 2010 issue. If you subscribed more than a few weeks ago and have yet to receive your 2009 issue, please let us know.

The special offer to obtain the five volumes of the journal now in print for only $55 USA ($76 foreign) expires at the first of the year (see the online store). A kind underwriter made this offer possible which has been very successful with many taking advantage to pick up full sets.

We are accepting article and review submissions for 2010. If you would like to make a submission for publication please review the submissions page.

Also at this time we are making a select number of articles available for purchase in PDF format from older issues. The first entry available is Matthew Winzer’s  review of Nick Needham’s Westminster & Worship (from The Westminster Confession into the 21st Century, 2, ed. J. Ligon Duncan [Ross-shire, Scotland: Christian Focus Publications, 2005]), which appeared in the 2008 issue.  See Articles Available for Purchase. We will continue to offer some older material for free as well.

The 2009 fifth volume of The Confessional Presbyterian journal

The 2009 issue  is full at 328 pages and the final table of contents is below. To purchase the issue see the online store.

The Confessional Presbyterian volume 5 (2009)
2. Editorial
3. The Westminster Assembly & the Judicial Law: A Chronological Compilation and Analysis. Part One: Chronology
By Chris Coldwell

56. The Westminster Assembly & the Judicial Law: A Chronological Compilation and Analysis. Part Two: Analysis
By Matthew Winzer

89. John Calvin on the Doctrine of Divine Revelation
By W. Gary Crampton. Th.D.

115. Samuel Rutherford’s Contribution to Covenant Theology in Scotland
By D. Patrick Ramsey

127. Presbyterian Quintessence: The Five ‘Heads’ of Church Government
By Frank J. Smith, Ph.D., D.D.

161. Johannes Megapolensis: Pioneer Reformed Missionary to the Mohawks
By Wes Bredenhof

170. An Answer to the Challenge of Preaching the Old Testament: An Historical & Theological Examination of the Redemptive-Historical Approach
By Rev. Anthony T. Selvaggio, J.D., M. Div.

185. The Deacon: A Divine Right Office with Divine Uses
By C. N. Willborn

199. Francis Turretin and Barthianism: The Covenant of Works in Historical Perspective
By James J. Cassidy

214. Pictures of Jesus and the Sovereignty of Divine Revelation: Recent Literature and a Defense of the Confessional Reformed View
By David VanDrunen

229. The Sabbath Day and Recreations on the Sabbath: An Examination of the Sabbath and the Biblical Basis for the “No Recreation” Clause in Westminster Confession of Faith 21.8 and Westminster Larger Catechism 117
By Lane Keister

239. “So Great a Love”—James Durham on Christ and His Church in the Song of Solomon
By Donald John MacLean

Table of Contents Continued
256 Reviews & Responses:
■ J. Todd Billings, Union with Christ: A Doctrine in Contention; Michael Horton, Covenant and Salvation: Union with Christ; Mark A. Garcia, Life in Christ: Union with Christ and the Twofold Grace in Calvin’s Theology (Jeff Waddington) 256
■ Cornelius P. Venema, Accepted and Renewed in Christ. The “Twofold Grace of God” and the Interpretation of Calvin’s Theology (Richard B. Gaffin) 269
■ Michael S. Horton, People and Place: A Covenant Ecclesiology (Wes Bredenhof) 274
■ Daniel R. Hyde, In Living Color: Images of Christ and the Means of Grace (Ryan M. McGraw) 276
■ J. van Genderen and W. H. Velema, Concise Reformed Dogmatics (James E. Dolezal) 278
■ Charles E. Hill, From the Lost Teaching of Polycarp: Identifying Irenaeus’ Apostolic Presbyter and the Author of ad Diognetum (R. Scott Clark) 283
■ Harold W. Hoehner, Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary (Guy Prentiss Waters) 286
■ Sinclair Ferguson, In Christ Alone: Living the Christ Centered Life (Christopher A. Hutchinson) 290
■ Edward T. Welch, Running Scared: Fear, Worry, and the God of Rest (Daniel F. Patterson) 292 ■

296 Psallo: Psalm 42

298 In Translatiōne: Part II. John Brown of Wamphray: Singing of Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual Songs in the Public Worship of God

305 Antiquary: The James Durham MSS Held by Glasgow University Library

308 Bibliography

324 Author Index, The Confessional Presbyterian, volumes 1–5 (2005–2009).

328 The Editor and Contributing Editors

In Brief:
James Walker’s Assessment of Samuel Rutherford (126) ■ “The Office of Deacon:” Extracts from The Presbyterian Quarterly {April, 1896} (198) ■ The Intent of Larger Catechism 109 Regarding Pictures of Christ’s Humanity (227) ■